A group of cute chicks
These chicks were born form egg shells, so cute.
Feeding chicken.
Many chickens are eating food.
poultry farming.
These chicken so beautiful, how did they do it?

Cage layer healthy breeding technology

The main features of caged laying hens

1. Easy to manage

At present, most of the laying hen farms have a large scale, and the number of laying hens has a certain scale, and the caged way helps to manage. Farmers can place a large number of laying hens in cages for feeding, which is convenient for sanitation and also helps daily management.

2. The health status of the laying hen is better.

In the process of laying hens, the caged method can help the hens to receive timely treatment when they are sick, and the way of cages can make the treatment difficult to a large extent. Therefore, adopting a caged approach helps to ensure the health of the laying hen.

3. Feeding is more convenient
The way in which the laying hens are caged can, to a certain extent, reduce the workload of the farmers so that they can be raised collectively. In addition, the scientific feeding mechanism is beneficial to the operation.



4. Helps preserve eggs

One of the biggest advantages of using layer battery cages is that the design of the cages is highly specialized. After the laying hens lay eggs, the eggs will automatically roll out of the chicken cages, and the eggs that enter the chicken cages can be collected in time to prevent them from being broken.

5. Lighting equipment

Lighting equipment is mainly the light automatic controller can turn on and off the lights on time. At present, China has produced a chicken house light controller. The electronic display light controller is better. The characteristics are as follows: (1) The switching time can be set arbitrarily and the timing is accurate. (2) The light intensity can be adjusted, and the daylight intensity is insufficient during the illumination time, and the supplementary illumination system is automatically activated. (3) The light is getting brighter and darker. (4) The power outage procedure is not disordered.

6. Ventilation equipment

The function of the ventilation device is to discharge the dirty air, moisture and excess heat in the house, while replenishing fresh air. Nowadays, the general house ventilation is a large-diameter, low-speed axial fan.

7. Water curtain fan cooling system

The main function of the water curtain fan cooling system is that the summer air enters the house through the water curtain, which can reduce the temperature of the air entering the house and reduce the temperature. The water curtain fan cooling system consists of a paper corrugated porous water curtain, a water curtain cooling fan, a water circulation system and a control device. In summer, the air enters the house through the water curtain to reduce the temperature inside the house by 5 to 8 °C.


Method of reducing the temperature of the house

In the summer, raise the chicken to pay attention to the temperature change in poultry cage equipment. When the temperature is too high, pay attention to how to change the temperature of the house.

1, water spray cooling

When the temperature exceeds 32 °C, cold water can be sprayed on the top of the chicken house with a high-pressure rotary atomizer, and the chicken body can be cooled by cold water spray, generally reducing the temperature by 5 to 6 °C.

2, set the insulation layer

Insulation layer is set on the roof of the laying house, the roof frame can be suspended to prevent sun exposure; the bungalow can be covered with a wet grass mat on the roof for heat insulation.

3, ventilation and cooling

The enclosed chicken house can be equipped with a fan or a ceiling fan to enhance ventilation and ventilation, and promote heat dissipation of the chicken body. Longitudinal ventilation can obtain better ventilation and ventilation effect than horizontal ventilation, and is an effective means to slow down heat stress. The wind speed in summer is 1 ~ 1. 2 m / s is appropriate. Longitudinal ventilation combined with wet curtain cooling to prevent heat stress is better. The open house can open all doors and windows to promote air circulation. The best way to relieve heat stress in laying hens is to spray water to lower the body temperature of the chicken.

4, set up a pergola

Some fast-growing broad-leaved trees are planned to be planted around the chicken house. It is also possible to set up awnings on the outside of the chicken house, planting vines, grapes and other creeping plants to protect the summer.

5, painted white paint

Use white paint or 60% lime milk to whiten the walls and top of the house to the sun, which can effectively reduce the temperature of the house.


How to reduce feed waste during chicken raising?

In addition to poultry farming equipment, the biggest production cost of chicken farms is the cost of feed, which accounts for about two-thirds of the total expenditure. According to statistics, in poorly managed and ineffective chicken farms, feed waste can account for 3% to 8% of annual feed consumption. Therefore, reducing feed waste is an important measure to increase the efficiency of chicken farms.

1. Maintain a suitable ambient temperature. When building a chicken house, pay attention to the insulation performance of the chicken house. It is ideal to keep the temperature of the house at 8 °C ~ 24 °C. In the cold winter, when the temperature drops below 5 °C, warmth measures should be taken to reduce the unnecessary waste of feed caused by cold stress. Production practice shows that for every 3 °C reduction in ambient temperature, the consumption will increase by about 5g, which is used to maintain body temperature and lay eggs. In the winter, effective measures are taken to reduce the temperature difference in the house. The front end of the longitudinally ventilated house is significantly larger than the chicken in the middle and rear end.

2. Develop a reasonable lighting system. The illumination time is too long, more than 16h or the light intensity is too large. If it exceeds 20lx, the feed consumption will increase and the feed compensation will decrease. In the cold winter night, the light consumption is prolonged, and the feed consumption is obviously increased. In this season, the lights should be turned on in the early morning to make up for the lack of light, and the lights can be turned off in advance at night.

3. Eliminate inferior chickens in time. Including weak chickens, sick chickens, discontinued chickens, low-yielding chickens, and scorpion chickens. These chickens not only waste feed, but also affect the health of the entire flock. If you find more pheasants, check the calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D3 content in the diet and the mixing of the feed.

4. Strengthen feed management. Prevent raw materials and finished products from rain, moisture, mildew, sun exposure, and expiration. Large chicken houses equipped with feed storage tanks should clean the tank walls in time to prevent the moisture from sticking to the tank wall, causing mildew, causing direct waste of feed and poisoning of chickens.

5. Eliminate the mouse. Chicken farms are extremely vulnerable to rodents due to their suitable environment and adequate food. The health hazards of rats and chickens are very alarming. According to foreign sources, a 250g rat can eat food equivalent to his own weight every day. Rats always pick fresh and good ingredients, and also urinate and defecate in the feed, causing pollution. Rats not only spread diseases, bite appliances, but also steal large amounts of feed. Many chicken farms account for 1% to 2% of the total feed, and the number is staggering.

6. Correctly break the time. Broken mites can not only prevent the occurrence of cockroaches, but also prevent chickens from grazing feed, effectively reducing feed waste, and saving 3% to 5% of feed through proper smashing. Chicks that have been cut off at 1 day of age must be supplemented with sputum 1 or 2 times during the breeding and laying stages to ensure the effect of smashing.


How to manage free-range chicken

The advantage of raising free-range chickens is that the free-range chickens grow slowly, the range of activities is large, the meat quality and egg taste are better, the market demand is getting bigger and bigger, and the number and quantity of artificial feeding are reduced, and the feed cost is reduced, but How should the free-range chickens be managed?


1, The first is the choice of address, try to choose the area with a flat mountainside, convenient drainage, the area that the sun can shine as a chicken house. Sunlight has a good bactericidal effect and can reduce the occurrence of many bacterial diseases. Where the rainy season is relatively long, it is necessary to pay attention to the waterproofing of the house, deepen the drainage ditch or adopt the net in the chicken house to reduce the rest of the flocks at night on the wet ground, and the incidence rate increases. If the night is wet and cold, the situation of getting together and dying will occur, and it will not be worth the candle.

2,Water is an indispensable factor in the process of raising chickens. The water source must be clean. Otherwise it will cause intestinal problems in the chicken.

3, Choose a good location, build a site, choose the site, to facilitate the entry of feed also need to pay attention to the common diseases of the free-range chicken at various stages, to prevent and control, in order to improve the survival rate.

4, Chicken disease is also an inevitable factor, such as chicken cold catch, chicken poultry equipment for sale insulation is not good, weather changes and cooling, etc., will lead to a cold in the free-range chicken.


The weather is cooled. Pay attention to the wind around the house to keep warm. During the day, the cover can be uncovered and the house can be ventilated. Block at night to prevent cold. In the evening, the temperature of the house is too low, it can be cut off, the space can be reduced to maintain the heat, or the heating method can be used to give the sick chicken a relatively comfortable environment, which helps the chicken disease to recover and reduces the death of trampling at night.


Development trend of caged layer chicken breeding technology

1. Analysis and research on the breeding of resistant breeds of laying hens

Breeding and improving the breeds of laying hens in order to achieve a better adaptation to the cage-fed method, so that the cultured varieties can be matched with the breeding methods. Based on the following two theories, one is the theory of quantitative genetics, the other is the theory of molecular genetics, combined with the most advanced biotechnology in China, and then breeds to breed high-inherited hybrid matching lines.
2. Research on the development of healthy breeding techniques for laying hens

The feeding mode of laying hens was studied to explore the effects on various aspects of laying hens, such as the production performance of laying hens and the quality of laying hens. Explore the characteristics of different chicken species and develop breeding techniques that are compatible with them. Explore the cultivation methods of cage laying hens in different climatic regions and develop their supporting equipment. Research and development of environmentally friendly mobile chicken houses.

3. Analysis and research on micro-environment monitoring of laying hens

Reform the environment of chicken house breeding and implement a digital monitoring system. Research on the intelligent control technology of the chicken house environment and establish a remote video monitoring and early warning system. Develop a chicken house cooling facility for farmers.



4. Analysis and research on feed feeding technology of laying hens

The feeding behavior of laying hens was studied to understand the feeding behavior characteristics of laying hens. The feeding mode of laying hens was analyzed and analyzed. According to the development and changes of the times, computer technology was gradually applied to feed the laying hens.

5. Analysis and research on disease control technology of laying hens

In order to carry out in-depth research on the epidemic prevention technology of laying hen farms, it is necessary to improve the immunity of laying hens from the following aspects: the first is to conduct research on molecules and cells, and the second is to analyze from the dose-effect relationship. Research on these aspects to improve the cell structure stability of laying hens. In the production process of laying hens, Salmonella infections are often encountered. In the future cage laying culture techniques, technical research to avoid contamination of laying hens should be strengthened.

6. Analysis and research on control technology for cleaner production

In the development trend of using layer chicken cages for breeding, the rapid detection technology of the manure source and organic pollutants in the house will be gradually analyzed. Analyze and study the prevention and control technologies that may cause harmful gases in cage laying hens, and create a good environment for cage laying hens to better realize the clean production of cage laying hens.


How does egg laying raise the egg production rate?

Although there are more and more farmers using fully automatic poultry farming equipment, the most important concern for laying hens is the amount of eggs laid. The key to increasing egg production is to extend the peak of laying of hens, because most of the eggs produced in a single egg come from this peak period. The longer this period, the total number of eggs laid. The higher. What should be done specifically to make this peak period as prolonged as possible?


1. Choose the right variety

After so many years of development, there have been many varieties of chickens. Even if the scope is reduced to laying hens, there are many varieties for farmers to choose. Different breeds have different egg production performance. Generally speaking, some newly-bred laying hens are more suitable for everyone to choose. After all, when they are cultivated, they are going to produce more eggs in this direction. In addition to the variety to be selected, specific to the individual chickens themselves, it is also necessary to make appropriate selections. Even for improved varieties, there will be great differences between individuals. Generally speaking, chickens with strong egg production have the following These characteristics: First, the body is strong and well-proportioned; Second, the characteristics of the hen are prominent; Third, it is more active and has a strong feeding ability; Fourth, the eyes are large and have God. It is recommended that when you choose a laying hen, you should select it according to this characteristic, so as to ensure sufficient peak production period.



2. Prepare the feed

In order for the chicken to lay more eggs, the feed must be good. For the chickens that are laying eggs, in order to breed more eggs, it is necessary to increase the proportion of protein in the feed, which is very different from the fattening chicken. Regarding the feed supply of laying hens, it is generally recommended to formulate according to the following ratio: 55 percent corn, 15 percent soybean meal, 17 percent wheat bran, 6 percent Five sorghum and eight percent of fishmeal. In addition, in order to facilitate the formation of eggshells, it is necessary to add two percent of shell powder and 1.2 percent of bone powder. If these two items are not added, the chicken may have a soft shell egg. In addition, in order to ensure the body of the laying hen, it is necessary to add an appropriate amount of salt and multi-dimensional components. Only when properly fed can the maximum peak of egg production be maximized.


3. Do a good job of disease prevention

When raising laying hens, the most headache is the occurrence of diseases. Once this happens, the egg production will be less, and it is very likely that the chickens will die in large numbers, causing great losses. Therefore, when breeding laying hens, we must do a good job of disease prevention and control. In addition to timely anti-epidemic at all stages of chicken growth, we should also pay attention to the disinfection of the house, only to control the pathogens. Only in this way can the laying of chickens be protected from disease. As a result, the chicken can remain healthy all the time, which is very beneficial for extending its peak egg production period.


Factors of Chicken Illness

It is inevitable that chickens are sick in chicken battery cages, so what are the factors that cause chicken disease?

1, Poor feeding: nutritional imbalanced feed, lack of one or more ingredients, improper feeding methods will make chicken susceptible to disease. For example, the uneven mixing of vitamin additives may cause some chickens to eat too
much, and the chickens with weak constitution can not eat or eat insufficient feed, which makes the chickens evenly poor and easy to get sick; the feed is too fine, and the chicken has poor palatability.

2, Nutritional deficiency in the diet: Insufficient vitamin A in the diet reduces the chicken's resistance to various respiratory diseases and resistance; the vitamin D in the feed is insufficient, the chicken is susceptible to rickets;
the methionine deficiency in the laying hen diet, the egg production rate Not high and easy to lick eggs.

3, Stress factors: a variety of stress factors, such as sudden shifts, changes in feed, large temperature difference in the house, parasites, heat stress, etc., can increase metabolic stress in chickens, will certainly cause disease

4, Poor ventilation: due to poor ventilation of the sultry house, the chicken is prone to respiratory diseases. Poor ventilation in the hot season causes heatstroke and heat stress in chickens; poor ventilation in the house, increased
ammonia and carbon dioxide concentrations in the house, which seriously affects the performance of the chicken. It is often important to provide ventilation properly.

5, Crowded: chicken overcrowding is easy to induce respiratory infections, severe worms, chicken mites, will cause chicken litter wet, moldy, air sultry, promote the spread of chicken disease.

6. Parasites: Chicken parasites such as mites and mites affect chicken health and reduce resistance to disease. When using barely qualified diets, they can cause chicken nutritional deficiencies. The ectoparasites cause irritation,
resulting in insufficient rest and reduced disease resistance, and they also cause pathogenic microorganisms.

7, The chicken house is not clean: This is an important factor that easily causes chicken coccidia, decreased egg production and many other diseases. Despise the chicken house disinfection, the chicken house is not disinfected for a long
time, the disinfection is not thorough, not comprehensive, often use a disinfectant, to varying degrees, causing viruses, bacteria, parasites to parasitize in the chicken house, causing chicken disease or infectious diseases.


Raising management techniques for chicks

Chicks generally refer to chickens that were born less than 50 days old. Chicks have young bodies, incomplete development of body functions, sensitive nervous system, high sensitivity to external changes, incomplete intestinal development, and poor resistance, but chicks are characterized by strong metabolism and rapid growth. The objective factors such as the environment in which the chicks live and the equipment of the feed have a great influence on the growth and development of the chicks. In the actual production environment, the breeder should adopt appropriate breeding management techniques for the characteristics of the chicks to provide a good environment for the healthy growth of the chicks.



1. Selection of chick breeding grounds

The growth and development of chicks is closely related to their living environment. Therefore, the selection of breeding sites is crucial. Whether the chicks can grow healthily and vigorously, the advantages and disadvantages of the breeding ground play a vital role. The breeding ground should be chosen in a sunny place to ensure that the chicks can get to the sun and disinfect the body of the chicks. On the other hand, breeding grounds should not be chosen where the wind is too strong, otherwise the chicks are susceptible to disease. The breeding ground should also have the requirements of quietness, comfort and sanitation. In addition, in the chicken raising cages of the chicken, there should be an activity room to ensure that the chicks can move normally and have enough space for exercise.


2. Selection of chicks

Choosing healthy chicks by appropriate means before breeding the chicks is undoubtedly one of the effective ways to increase chick breeding rates. In general, healthy chicks are rich in feathers, soft, with eyes and strong limbs. In the selection process of the chicks, the breeder should first observe the mental state of the chicks to see if they are lively and active; on the other hand, the breeder can also judge the physical condition of the chicks through the body temperature of the chicks: healthy chicks have normal body temperature and soft belly The meat is elastic; unhealthy chicks tend to have a poor mental state, a sluggish look and a weak body. Breeders should choose healthy chicks for the above characteristics.


How to improve air quality in the house

To do a good job in the environmental control of the chicken poultry cages for sale, we must start from the two aspects of static environmental control factors and production environmental management factors, and poor ventilation is the source of all diseases, so we must first solve the ventilation problem.

1, implement forced ventilation

Due to the relatively small wind speed of natural ventilation, it is not possible to discharge some microbial dust, and it can not discharge all kinds of harmful gases quickly. Therefore, for intensive and high-density feeding methods, mechanical forced ventilation must be adopted. Otherwise, diseases will be caused. Serious consequences.

2, the contradiction between winter insulation and ventilation

Insulation and ventilation in winter are a difficult part of environmental control. Whether this contradiction is properly solved is directly related to the extent of chicken morbidity, mortality and production level in the autumn, winter and spring. In the heat preservation of the chicken house, the ventilation should be taken into consideration, and mutual coordination and organic integration should be achieved. When the temperature is slightly lower, the ventilation is more important, and the heat preservation is taken into consideration; when the temperature is very low, the insulation is heavy, and the ventilation is taken into consideration. The relationship between the two should be adjusted in the temperature change to ensure the fresh and clean air quality and maintain a good temperature. The temperature inside the house. At the same time, the ventilation control solves the temperature change caused by the occurrence of cold current in the winter, autumn and winter alternate seasons.

3, Solve the wind speed in the house

Appropriate wind speed can make the chicken feel comfortable, and it is beneficial to the performance of chicken production and the improvement of feed conversion rate. When the temperature is high and the density is high, the heat protection will increase the body temperature of the chicken, while the chicken has no sweat gland. It is easy to produce a feeling of extremely uncomfortable, and there is a phenomenon of mouth breathing, etc., and the airflow speed generated by the ventilation can help the chicken body to destroy the thermal protective layer to discharge heat and lower the temperature inside the house. Therefore, it is necessary to keep the chickens in a comfortable state with the heat dissipation function of the temperature, the reduction of harmful gases in the house, and the guarantee of air quality.

In short, thoroughly solving the problems in ventilation is an important part of improving the biosafety and epidemic prevention system; firstly, solving the ventilation problem can effectively solve the problems of temperature, microbial dust, harmful gas, humidity, density and oxygen supply. The effects of flocks are achieved in order to achieve environmental control and reduce chicken stress. Only to create a comfortable and safe living environment for chickens, to ensure the steady improvement of chicken health and production levels.


How to improve the productivity of chicken farming?

1. Ring maintenance chicken is the trend: Nowadays, the industry is promoting environmental protection in various industries, and the chicken industry is no exception. Now many pig farms and chicken industry are rectifying their own environment, saving energy and reducing emissions. The pollution of the environment is the development trend of the chicken industry. In the past, the manure water in the chicken farms was flowing everywhere, the flies were flying all over the sky, and the smell around the chicken farms was very unpleasant. If it was not rectified, it would affect the external air environment and affect the impact. People's healthy life, so ring maintenance chicken is a thing to do.


2. Specialized management is the trend: With the increasing degree of chicken farming in the chicken industry, the equipment is professional, and of course the management and technology of chicken raising are constantly updated and upgraded. Only professional people do professional things. In order to be successful, no one farmer will raise chickens to understand water and electricity, and will manage people to see a doctor again. Therefore, it is a trend to hand over every job to a professional person to achieve win-win cooperation and mutual benefit.



3. Large-scale, intensive farming is the trend: large-scale, intensive chicken farming now the chicken industry is vigorously promoted. Many farmers have already used fully automatic poultry farming equipment to achieve a large-scale chicken raising model. Some small-scale households are small in scale, and broiler feeding equipment and chicken-raising technology are backwards. They can't adapt to the development of chicken industry, and the benefits are very small or even loss-making. Therefore, small-scale farmers need to change the current farming situation before they can raise chickens. Win in the middle.


4. Green drug-free chickens are imperative: With the continuous improvement of people's living standards, there are higher requirements for food. Green food is no stranger to us, and more and more people pay attention to food safety, so How farmers produce green and safe chicken products is something that farmers need to consider now, which is related to the economic benefits of farmers and the health of people.

The process of broiler feeding management should be carried out according to the growth stage of broilers. Generally, broilers will be divided into three growth stages, so farmers should adjust the feeding points according to these three different stages, as well as the nutrient ratio and content of feed. Etc., to be scientifically raised, in line with the growth needs and standards of broilers, so that they can grow healthily.


The important role of chicken environment


Chicken raising is not only a very simple matter in poultry cage equipment, but also the role of the environment. Sometimes a good environment will also affect the growth and development of chickens. The environmental factors are environmental stress, including the temperature of the house, ventilation, and density. , high temperature, low temperature, high wind, dust, fog, etc. caused by light, feeding methods, equipment and the environment.

For example, the harmful gas in the chicken house that we often see exceeds the standard, which will cause respiratory diseases. The heat preservation, ventilation, lighting and equipment of the chicken house are all guarantees for the health of the chickens. The temperature and humidity in the chicken house will be balanced. It has a decisive role in the health of chickens in the early feeding of chickens.


The digestive system and respiratory system can induce a variety of viral diseases and bacterial diseases under overload conditions. Bacterial excess of some feed ingredients directly causes intractable diarrhea. Long-term failure to recover leads to a decrease in the body's resistance and induces a chain of certain viral diseases. The outbreaks of some diseases have followed the outbreak of bad weather, which is caused by the external environment.


Poor environmental factors will bring stress to the chickens, affect the normal activities of the chickens, affect the growth and development of the body, reduce the body's immune function, increase the probability of infection of the body, and hinder the growth and development of the chickens. The neuroticism caused by excessive light is excitatory, easy to be shocked, the feed conversion rate is increased, and the anal fistula is induced.


Why do you need to use medicine to prevent chicken disease?

With the development of fully automatic poultry farming equipment, more and more people choose to use automatic poultry farming equipment to raise chickens, and the number of breeding has also increased. Therefore, the cost of raising chickens has also begun to rise. How to effectively prevent disease becomes a problem.


1. Newcastle disease


Newcastle disease is a viral acute infectious disease. It has no epidemic season and can be attacked all year round. It is highly contagious, has a high incidence, is extremely fast, and has a very high mortality rate. When the disease occurs, it is characterized by difficulty in breathing and diarrhea in the chicken. If the pathology is acute, it will die within a few minutes to a few hours after the onset. If it is a subacute flower, the chicken will begin to be weak, loss of appetite, loose feathers, and fainting. Drowsiness, inconvenient movement, a squeaky voice in the mouth, and finally death.


Prevention and treatment method: Because the attack of this disease is extremely rapid, it is generally based on prevention. When the chicken is used, it should be vaccinated in time. It is necessary to strengthen the feeding and pay attention to the sanitation and disinfection. The drug treatment can be carried out in time after the onset of the disease, and the large-dose spray of the Newcastle disease I-line vaccine can be used for effective prevention and treatment.


2. Avian cholera


Avian cholera is a common infectious disease among poultry. It occurs mainly in long-term rainy weather and spreads through the digestive tract and respiratory tract. The specific manifestations of the disease are sepsis, diarrhea, and the same as Newcastle disease, which is divided into acute and chronic, with acute onset and high mortality. Chronic is characterized by joint inflammation and edema, depression, loose feathers, difficulty breathing, diarrhea and feces. Gray yellow white green.



Prevention and treatment methods: The disease is extremely harmful, and there is no good treatment. It should be based on prevention, timely vaccination prevention, and chronic drug treatment after the onset. If it is acute, the diseased chicken must be disposed of in time. If it is a chicken farm, there is basically no problem. The chicken farms should be completely blocked. All the chickens in the farm will be smothered and burned, and then the site will be completely disinfected. After two months, the chickens will be re-introduced.


3. Colibacillosis


Escherichia coli is a common disease caused by Escherichia coli. It does not specifically represent a disease, but is a unified term for diseases caused by E. coli. When the disease occurs, it becomes diarrhea, depression, loss of food or no food, and often kills the liver of the chicken and causes death.


Control methods: First of all, we must reduce the density of breeding, do a good job in the sanitation environment and disinfection work, drinking water and feed must be clean and clean, to prevent the occurrence of this disease due to degraded or mildewed drinking water feed. When the disease occurs, it can be controlled by the special effect of the medicinal medicinal stalk, and vitamins can be added to the feed to enhance the disease resistance.


In order to prevent the spread of diseases, it is recommended to select suitable poultry equipment suppliers to purchase equipment such as chicken cages, and use poultry farming equipment for breeding, which can effectively reduce the occurrence of diseases and facilitate management.